The rack should be placed so that the apex ball rests on the foot spot. The 8-ball must be placed in the middle of the triangle and the remaining balls should be placed randomly except that that the ball at each rear corner of the rack must be from a different group (stripes or solids) from the ball located at the opposite corner.
The incoming breaker/shooter must place the cue ball behind the head string. There is no requirement to call a ball on the break or to strike any particular ball first. For a legal break to occur an object ball must be pocketed or at least four object balls must contact a cushion.
If the shooter fails to pocket a ball or to drive four balls to a cushion then the opponent may: Rerack and take the break for him or herself or require the original shooter to rerack and rebreak.
If the original shooter, on the break, hits four balls to a cushion or pockets a ball but scratches or commits a another foul, then the opponent receives a ball in hand and any pocketed balls remain pocketed.
In all cases on the break, balls jumped off the table, other than the 8-ball, are not returned to the table except in the event of a re-rack.
8-ball on the break
Pocketing the 8-ball on the break does not win the game. Conversely pocketing the 8-ball on the break and scratching is not a loss of game. If the shooter, on the break, pockets the 8-ball, he/she has the option of either spotting the 8-ball and continuing with the their turn or re-racking the balls and breaking again. If the shooter pockets the 8-ball on the break and commits a foul then the opponent has the option of either having the 8-ball spotted and taking a ball in hand or re-racking and taking the break.
Table open after break
The table is always open after the break even if the shooter pockets one or more balls. Groups are established when the shooter pockets a ball of one category on a shot after the break.
Loss of game
It is a loss of game when:
The 8-ball is illegally pocketed, i.e.- the shooter calls a safety but sinks the 8-ball, the 8-ball is pocketed before all the balls in the players category, the shooter pockets the 8-ball on a shot that is not obvious and did not call the shot.
The 8-ball is jumped off the table, except on the break.
The 8-ball is pocketed and the shooter disturbs the cue ball, disturbs a ball in motion, disturbs more than one object ball or the disturbed object ball strikes another ball.
The shooter scratches on the 8-ball only if the 8-ball is pocketed as well as the cue ball. If the shooter scratches on the 8-ball but the 8-ball is not pocketed the inning ends and the opponent comes to the table with a ball in hand.